Agro Productividad <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href=""><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href=""><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href=";user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href=";local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="">Biblat</a>, <a href="">CABI</a> y <a href="">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="">Catálogo</a>), <a href="">REDIB</a>, <a href="">SIBDI</a>, <a href="">MIAR</a>, <a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="">CORE</a>,<a href=""> Scilit</a>, <a href=";cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href=";referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href=";refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="">AURA</a>, <a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="">Refseek</a>,<a href=""> OpenAire</a>, <a href=";view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href=";rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="">scite.</a></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES Agro Productividad 2448-7546 Wild Edible Mushroom Lore in A Suburban Mestizo Community <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To record the mycological lore related to wild edible mushrooms (WEM) in Santa Ana Jilotzingo, a mestizo rural community greatly influenced by the urban area of Mexico City.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Unstructured and semi-structured interviews were conducted over the course of three years.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Sixty-six WEM species were recorded. Ninety-one traditional names were documented: 65 Spanish names, 3 Nahuatl names, 4 mixed names, and 19 indeterminate names. Local gatherers have a precise knowledge of the biology, ecology, and distribution of the used species; the knowledge preserved by older people is more diverse and accurate. Nowadays, gathering WEM in the rainy season has lost its relevance as an economic activity. However, WEM foraging as a livelihood food supplement remains important for the community.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The 2020 pandemic hindered the field work.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> In the study area, relevant mycological lore still survives despite complex adverse conditions, such as acculturation, migration, and deforestation.</p> W. K. Bautista-Bautista I. Díaz-Aguilar Jesus Perez-Moreno I. Frutis-Molina F. Ruan-Soto Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2504 Analysis of backyard agriculture and livestock production activities in the South Huasteca Region in San Luis Potosí, Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To carry out a diagnosis and assess the importance of backyard agriculture and livestock production in rural communities of the XV District in the South Huasteca Region of the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, on the social, economic and nutritional context of the population.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The study was carried out with two blocks of surveys, the first with the local government and the second with peasants, evaluating the socioeconomic status, importance of livestock and agriculture, nutritional status and culture. The method was deductive and descriptive; the information was with multivariate analysis of principal components.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Government support does not reduce poverty. Families feel secure with their material goods. The nutritional status of the population is lacking. Raising chickens, turkeys and Creole pigs prioritizes livestock activity. Self-consumption and the commercialization of plant species is a traditional activity. There is a culinary culture.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/Implications: </strong>The restriction of information by the municipal government; the pandemic problems to generate more information from the surveys.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>It is necessary to create efficient programs that improve agricultural and livestock production in the region, with the purpose of improving the nutritional status of the population and generating economic resources to reduce poverty.</p> Celia Gutiérrez-Fidencio Efren Ramirez-Bribiesca Roberto C. García-Sánchez Ma del Carmen López-Reyna Rosy G. Cruz-Monterrosa Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2511 Trade dependence of Mexico on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the degree of trade dependence of the Mexican market on, imported barley from 1994 to 2021.<br /><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The growth rates of the barley production variables in the domestic market were estimated, the relative trade balance was calculated, and the trade dependence was determined.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The production variables had growth rates in the analysis period, the relative trade balance was -1, and the trade dependence was close to 0.<br /><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> There is no correlation between the barley market and the brewing industry in Mexico.<br /><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Mexico is a net importer of barley despite the positive growth rates of the production variables. Nevertheless, this grain does not have a trade dependence on the foreign market.</p> E.Y. Núñez-Betancourt S. Rivera-López Carlos E. Luquez-Gaitan ALEJANDRO REVILLA CHAVIANO Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i1.2513 Topic modeling analysis of Community Savings Groups: evidence from the combined literature <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify topics of study related to Community Savings Groups (CSGs) from the literature available.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Some phases of natural language processing were implemented. The data were obtained from scientific databases and gray literature. The analysis included 228 abstracts of papers, theses, working papers, and reports. The Latent Dirichlet Allocation model was used to identify the topics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Six topics have been the focus of the discussion about the existence and impact of CSGs in the last two decades.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Texts without abstracts in English were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The topics found deal with various aspects on which CSGs have had an impact, such as health, empowerment, primary sector, violence, and other aspects related to existence. Additional evidence is required to consider CSGs as an effective and sustainable mechanism that facilitates well-being.</p> Emmanuel Remilien Rufino Vivar Miranda Roselia Servín Juárez Esteban Valtierra Pacheco Luz María Pérez Hernández Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2519 Typology of sheep farmers benefited by the Program for the Improvement of indigenous Production and Productivity <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the typology and describe the sheep farmers benefited by the Programa para el Mejoramiento de la Producción y Productividad Indígena (PROIN: Program for the Improvement of Indigenous Production and Productivity) of the Instituto Nacional de Pueblos Indígenas (INPI: National Institute for Indigenous Peoples), in Campeche.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> One-hundred ninety-nine sheep farmers registered as beneficiaries in the Program were interviewed. They belonged to 27 sheep farms (SF), located in seven municipalities. A questionnaire including socioeconomic and technical questions and 15 quantitative and qualitative variables was conducted. Variables were correlated and a principal components analysis was carried out to define types of farms. The variables that explained the highest variability in the data set were number of sheep, number of sheep sold per year, annual income from sheep sales, productive purpose of the sheep farming, and feeding system. These variables were then used to perform a cluster analysis in order to identify and cluster the sheep farms.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three groups of farmers were identified: Conventional (C, 74%) with 70 sheep and annual sales for $10,109.00; Transitional (T, 15%) with 169 sheep and annual sales for $36,680.00; and those in business (B, 11%) with 142 sheep and annual sales for $48,443.00. All the producers (100%) carry out extensive grazing. The breeds used by C and T are Pelibuey × Black Belly (78%), while B uses Pelibuey × Kathadin (21.7%).</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Implemented support strategies must differentiate according to the type of farm.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Three types of sheep farmers were identified: Conventional, Transitional, and Enterprise. Farmer types were differentiated by the number of sheep, sales, income, sheep production system, and feeding system they use.</p> Ponciano Pérez Jo´se de Jesús Pérez Bautista Bernardino Candelaria Martínez Silvia López Ortiz Ricardo Antonio Chiquini Medina Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2554 Developing a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) for Risk Mapping <p>community, in Jilotepec, State of Mexico, with risk mapping purposes.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>A Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) was developed based on sociodemographic indicators, housing characteristics, and the conditions of the production systems. The information sources for the SVI indicators were obtained from official Basic Geostatistical Area (AGEB) censuses and from an online survey carried out in the community under study. The SVI was cross-referenced with data from four previously published natural hazard studies for risk mapping purposes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The methodological proposal uses equal weight index statistical techniques to develop the SVI. Using online surveys is a clearly viable option for research studies that require to obtain more detailed data on housing characteristics, as well as the population’s perception of certain changes in precipitation and temperature patterns that are happening in their community and the measures, they take to face these natural phenomena.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Online surveys are relatively recent, which implies the need to design and implement validation and sampling mechanisms for the results.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Risk mapping enabled the territorial visualization and identification of the communal vulnerability conditions, which facilitates a conceptual approach to the social reality of the population and will allow the formulation of potential future scenarios of climate change and the implementation of public policies.</p> Víctor M. Hernández-Rodríguez Miguel J. Escalona-Maurice Aurelio León-Merino Silvia Pimentel-Aguilar Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2556 Assessment and selection of flowering inducers to increase productivity of mango cv. Ataulfo (Mangifera indica L.) <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess new flowering inducers used to increase the fruit yield in mango cv. Ataulfo trees, to substitute paclobutrazol.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Ten-year-old mango cv. Ataulfo trees were used, homogeneous in terms of health. The treatments evaluated were prohexadione calcium, cytokinins, itaconic acid, phosphonitrate, potassium nitrate and paclobutrazol. The experimental design was completely random blocks with five repetitions; each experimental unit and repetition consisted of one tree. The number of inflorescences, percentage of flowering, number of fruits, fruit yield by hectare, and profitability of treatments were assessed. The data were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey’s means comparison (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were no significant effects of the treatments for number of inflorescences, percentage of flowering, and number of fruits; however, the homogeneous formation of inflorescences was found with itaconic acid. Prohexadione calcium (P-Ca) presented the highest fruit yield (19.32 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), but it does not differ from paclobutrazol (10.34 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The highest profitability of the crop was obtained with prohexadione calcium, in which for each peso invested the amount of $1.51 was recovered.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> Prohexadione calcium can be an alternative for the use of paclobutrazol to induce flowering and increase the fruit yield of mango cv. Ataulfo in the Coast of Guerrero.</p> RAFAEL ARIZA FLORES MIGUEL ANGEL CANO GARCIA PEDRO CADENA IÑIGUEZ LUIS ANTONIO GALVEZ MARROQUIN MAIREL Valle de la Paz Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2561 Analysis of consumption preference of goat products in different regions of Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To characterize and determine the consumption preferences for goat products in different regions of Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>An exploratory study was carried out through a survey addressed to 300 consumers. The sample was obtained through convenience sampling. The semi-structured questionnaire was divided into the following sections: sociodemographic information, willingness to consume, type of derivative products known, and frequency of consumption. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to determine significant variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that milk, cheese, and meat are the most relevant foods for goat consumption. These products are ideal for expanding the diversification of consumption in Mexican regions.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>To deepen the analysis of the sociodemographic and consumption characteristics, it is necessary to consider a greater number of variables.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Knowing the products that are consumed most frequently allows more effective and efficient strategies to be generated and, in turn, opens the pattern for consumption diversification.</p> Xochitl Ponce Ávila Rafael García Vázquez Magdalena Galindo Guzmán Jorge Maldonado Jáquez Gabriela Castillo Hernández Pablo Arenas Báez Sandra P Maciel Torres Marco Andrés López Santiago Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2566 Economic valuation of a gallery landscape of ahuehuetes in Ciudad Mendoza Veracruz, using the AMUVAM method <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to determine the value, in monetary terms, of the landscape "Bosque de Galería de Ahuehuetes, in Mendoza, Veracruz", in order to have a reference for the purposes of planning and management of this environmental asset by the municipality.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>the Analytic Multicriteria Valuation Method (AMUVAM) was used. A survey was made of 10 experts in the study area on the elements of the total economic value (VET) of the asset and the results were weighted to determine the importance of the components of the VET. The rent was determined based on the availability of the population to pay for the aesthetic enjoyment of the visit to the site; income updated by means of a social discount rate (TSD) to environmental projects with a time horizon of more than 30 years.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>an estimation of 23,603,041.37 USD was obtained as monetary value. It was the result of the valuation of the landscape of this gallery forest in November 2022.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/ Implications</strong>: results were considered adequate. The main limitations of this type of studies are the time and economic resources needed in order to add other elements that could be considered beyond aesthetic enjoyment. Specific elements would allow to find an even more robust direct use value.</p> <p><strong>Findings / Conclusions:</strong> it can be noticed that the application of the method was adequate to determine the monetary value of this asset. Based on the determination of the willingness of people to pay for access to the aesthetic enjoyment of the analyzed landscape.</p> T. Rafael. A. Muñoz-Márquez Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v16i10.2579 Determination of the main agricultural crops for the Metropolitan Puebla-Tlaxcala area using the Papadakis Methodology <p>agricultural crops in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Metropolitan Area (ZMPT). <strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>From April to June 2022, the classification process for identifying the main crops in the ZMPT was conducted. This process utilized monthly climatic data from the Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA), analyzed through the Papadakis methodology (1970). Subsequently, the results were mapped using the Weighted Overlay (WO) tool in ArcGIS v.10.2. <strong>Results: </strong>The Papadakis methodology identified 10 seasonal crop types, particularly for summer and winter. The WO tool categorized potential areas into five classes: optimal, highly suitable, acceptable, and unacceptable for the establishment of several crops. <strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>This study has limitations due to incomplete and scarce databases and the complexity and cost associated with the software used. However, the implications for agriculture include the potential to enhance and diversify agricultural production by identifying optimal areas for establishment, especially in urban-peri-urban agricultural areas (UPAs). <strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>This study successfully identified the main crops cultivated in the ZMPT and highlighted potential areas for their establishment. The generated cartographic information enables the strategic distribution of productive agricultural systems, particularly in UPAs, to adapt to regional climate fluctuations in the short, medium, and long term. Besides, an adequate distribution in the implementation of productive agricultural systems, particularly in UPAs, depending on fluctuations in the climatic conditions of the region.</p> SAUL UGALDE LEZAMA Alfredo Pérez-Guerrero Enrique Buendía-Rodríguez Alejandro I. Monterroso-Rivas Genaro Olmos-Oropeza Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v16i10.2587 Characterization of production units of cured foods in the Isthmus Region, Oaxaca, Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To characterize the family production units (FPUs) that produce and market cured foods in the Isthmus Region.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The approach was descriptive and correlational. The methodology used was proposed by Chayanov (1925), which proposes the assessment of six factors. A survey was applied and 75 variables were evaluated, Spearman’s correlation and chi-square test were carried out, and contingency tables were generated with the most significant variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>With a higher the level of studies of the head of the family, the number of members was greater and women participated more in decision-making. The production of cured foods is a tradition inherited from one generation to another, and 73% learned the activity from a family member. The workforce is family-based and only family members are involved in 95% of the FPUs.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The vastness of the region makes it difficult to cover other municipalities and insecurity makes it difficult to obtain information.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The family structure at the FPUs is nuclear. The woman directs the elaboration of cured foods, so it is considered that she plays an important role in conserving artisanal production.</p> Rubén Vásquez Aragón Gisela M. Santiago-Martínez Ernesto Castañeda-Hidalgo Adela Vásquez-García Salvador Lozano-Trejo Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v16i10.2592 Efficiency-cost, micropropagation, bioreactors, temporary immersion systems <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to estimate the production price of strawberry “mother” plant of the CP-Jacona variety in both TIS and TS, and to compare these prices with the price of the imported “mother” plant.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>micropropagation methods have been used as an effective means for the mass production of pathogen-free plants, in small spaces and relatively short periods of time. In particular, <em>in vitro</em> Temporary Immersion Systems (TIS) applied to the production of strawberry “mother” plants have been shown to offer technological and quantitative benefits, as well as a higher proliferation rate, compared to the <em>in vitro </em>Traditional System (TS). Despite the benefits of TIS, these systems have not been evaluated in terms of the price at which the “mother” plant can be produced and whether it is a profitable option to supply strawberry producers. The traditional method of financial analysis was applied.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the price of the CP-Jacona variety plant obtained from the third production period through TIS was lower than the price of the imported Festival or Camarosa varieties.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> both the high production rate and the low rate of loss from handling in TIS were fundamental aspects to obtain lower prices than those of imported varieties.</p> Martha Alejandra Gomez Cruz José Jaime Arana-Coronado Gregorio Arellano-Ostoa José Miguel Omaña-Silvestre Roberto Carlos García-Sánchez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2650 Microhistological References of Plants Available for Ungulates in Sonora, Mexico <p>The microhistological technique is the most popular methodology used to determine the wild and domestic ungulates diet; its success depends on the development of a reliable reference catalog.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe and analyze the epidermal structures of the plants available for wild and domestic ungulates in Sonora, Mexico, using the microhistological technique.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A comprehensive collection of the plants available for wild and domestic ungulates was carried out at UMA Rancho Noche Buena, in order to subsequently identify their genus and species. Plant structures were analyzed with the modified microhistological technique, scraping the beam and underside cuticle of leaf plants. In addition, at least one photograph was taken to characterize them.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion</strong>: The epidermal structures of 95.95% of the analyzed plants were observed with the microhistological technique and its modification. The distinctive structures of 74 plant species were identified, in order to describe the main characteristics of each species. A catalog of microhistological references was developed from the data collected; it included information about the morphology and arrangement of structures such as: epidermal cells, stomata and trichrome. A difference was found between the beam and underside of the leaves in 23% of the species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A reliable microhistological reference catalog should consider possible differences between the beam and underside of the leaves of plants.</p> Raúl Peralta-Pardo Jorge Palacio-Núñez Luis A. Tarango-Arámbula Genaro Olmos-Oropeza Juan F. Martínez-Montoya Krisly Sucedo-Uuh Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2657 Determining the economic threshold for the sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea spp.) in the Córdoba-Golfo region, Veracruz, Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the economic threshold for <em>Diatraea</em> spp. in the Córdoba-Golfo sugarcane growing region in Veracruz, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>During the 2020-2021 production cycle, we established 21 sampling plots to measure damage percentage due to borer larvae in sugarcane stalks. Based on these measurements, we calculated the economic damage level (EDL) and the economic threshold (ET) by regions and subregions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The most affected subregion was Yanga, with an average annual damage of more than 5 % and a real economic threshold of 1.36. The average ET in the Córdoba-Golfo region was 2.76, which indicates that applying control strategies for <em>Diatraea</em> spp. enables the regulation of insect populations.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications: </strong>Strategies to obtain reality-driven diagnoses are still necessary to design and apply assertive management procedures to control stalk borer populations in the field.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>We posit a suitably calculated ET for each studied subregion, considering updated parameters that include real crop losses per zone (field performance). This can provide the basis for a course of action with an effective management that will, in turn, increase field performance and sugarcane juice quality.</p> Marisol Cruz Tobon Francisco Hernández-Rosas Hilda Victoria Silva-Rojas Ricardo Serna-Lagunes Daniel Arturo Rodríguez-Lagunes Régulo Carlos Llarena-Hernández Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2675 Evaluation of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) bioplastic through morphological and thermo-mechanical characteristics <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the morphological and thermo-mechanical properties of a biofilm obtained from orange peel.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Pectin, a polysaccharide obtained from orange peel, has the potential to be used as a raw material in the bioplastics industry. The samples obtained were characterized by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique, mechanical tension and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The elastic modulus was in the range of 7.7 to 29.9 MPa, depending on the plasticizer content. The thermogravimetric analysis showed a thermal decomposition between 134.42 to 153.98 °C depending on the plasticizer content and up to five events were identified.</p> <p><strong>Limitations of the study/implications:</strong> During the process, a pectin yield of 75% of orange peel was obtained.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> In developing countries such as Mexico, waste originating from agricultural and agro-industrial activities represents an important source of natural carbohydrate polymers that can be used to produce bioplastics, intended to replace petroleum-derived materials. In the case of orange peel, it can become a potential raw material to obtain value-added products in sectors of the food industry. These results indicated that our pectin has suitable properties to be used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics</p> Roberto Hernández Córdova MARIA TERESA CADENAS GONZALEZ Melissa Monserrat Ramos Alvarado Gabriela Leo-Avelino Marcela Zurita Macías Valadez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2697 Characteristics of the white-tailed deer hunting exploitation (Odocoileus virginianus) in Chihuahua, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the characteristics of the number of hectares (located in the UMAs registered in the state of Chihuahua) used for the white-tailed deer free-range production, the level of exploitation of the species, and its economic value.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> This study determined the number of Units for the Conservation, Management, and Sustainable Use of Wildlife (UMAs) registered in the state of Chihuahua, where white tailed deer had been exploited since 2015. Forty-three municipalities in the state of Chihuahua, with a total of 159 UMAs, were analyzed. Twenty-three randomly selected UMAs were characterized, taking into account the hectares and the presence of white-tailed deer per municipality. Finally, the exploitation value of the species use per community was established in order to determine its exploitation and economic value.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total area used for the exploitation of the white-tailed deer reaches 1,067,380 hectares. Thirty-two municipalities had potential for the exploitation of white-tailed deer. Thirty-three deer were hunted per season in the 23 UMAs under study, which accounts for a $990,000 Mexican pesos gross income for the state of Chihuahua per season; this exploitation generates a total of 115 temporary jobs for the communities surrounding the 23 UMAs studied. Chihuahua’s UMAs welcome a total of 33 white-tailed deer hunters per season. Hunters pay $30,000 to $34,000 Mexican pesos for each white-tailed deer specimen.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The study provides an overview of the current state of the UMAs in the state of Chihuahua that have a permit for the white-tailed deer hunting exploitation. Each of the UMAs under study has specific characteristics, including: the services offered, the associated hunting species, and the exploitation populations under an integrated sustainability arrangement. This study does not include the benefits of exploiting associated species, such as the collared peccary (<em>Dicotyles tajacu</em>) and the wild turkey (<em>Meleagris gallopavo</em>)<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Based on the number of registered UMAs, 32 out of 40 municipalities use 100% of their registered area for the exploitation of white-tailed deer. The white-tailed deer hunting exploitation increases the profitability and productivity of livestock ranches.</p> Cuauhcíhuatl Vital-García Fernando Clemente-Sánchez Juan A. Quintero-Elisea Rodrigo Iglesias-Coss Derechos de autor 2023 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v16i9.2692 Yield and nutritive value of Urochloa hybrids at different regrowth ages <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the productive behavior of <em>Urochloa</em> hybrids, depending on the regrowth age.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The study was carried out under rainfed conditions during 2018. The Cayman, Mulato II, Convert 330, Cobra, Camello I, and Camello II hybrids were evaluated based on the regrowth age (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks). The following variables were evaluated: plant height (PH), total dry matter (TDM) yield, dry matter per leaf (DMl) yield, dry matter per stem (DMs) yield, crude protein content (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The data obtained were evaluated by means of a randomized complete block design with three repetitions, divided into plots: a large plot for the cultivars and small plot for the regrowth ages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Camello II cultivar obtained the highest TDM yields during the sixth and eighth weeks (4.15 and 6.35 t DM ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively); however, during the tenth week, the yield was equal to the yield obtained with the Mulato II and Cayman cultivars (p&lt;0.05). The highest DMl yield was obtained by the Mulato II cultivar during the sixth, eighth, and tenth weeks (3.37, 4.56, and 3.86 t DM ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). The Mulato II cultivar recorded the highest CP values during the second and fourth weeks (158 and 126 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively); however, the Camello II cultivar obtained the highest CP values during the sixth, eighth, and tenth weeks (99, 95, and 87 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). The NDF and ADF values increased as the regrowth age increased: in the tenth week, the Camello II and Cobra cultivars obtained the highest NDF values, while the Camello II cultivar recorded the highest ADF value during the same period.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong><em> Urochloa</em> cultivars were developed for their establishment in humid tropical conditions, where their productive performance is greater. However, in dry tropical conditions, the Cayman, Mulato II, and Cobra cultivars have had a better performance than other grasses —such as buffel grass (<em>Pennisetum ciliare</em>), which is used to feed ruminants. In this sense, other <em>Urochloa</em> cultivars (<em>e.g.</em>, Camello I and Camello II), which have greater tolerance to droughts, show desirable forage characteristics, such as yield and forage quality.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The cultivars with the best productive performance were Camello II, Mulato II, and Cayman.</p> Juan E. Godina-Rodríguez Jonathan R. Garay-Martínez Benigno Estrada-Drouaillet Andrés G. Limas-Martínez Y. Bautista-Martínez Santiago Joaquín-Cancino Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2814 Opportunities for territorial development in the transisthmic corridor; baseline diagnosis in the region of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main objective was to know the current situation of livestock production, problems and potentialities, in the municipalities of Matías Romero, Santa María Petapa and San Juan Guichicovi, Oaxaca, located in the transoceanic corridor of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The diagnosis was made in eight communities in the municipalities of Matías Romero, Santa María Petapa and San Juan Guichicovi, located north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region, Oaxaca. To determine the sample size, the formula suggested by (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967 and Rojas, 1979) was used. It indicates that the elements must be selected through a random draw with replacement, to define the population, the list of production units registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, whose universe is 215, from which, a sample of 41 units was taken.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>36% of the interviewees indicated that the ownership of their land is ejidal, 34% is communal and 30% is small property. The interviewed livestock producers develop their livestock activities on an average of 37 hectares. The production units with the smallest area are 8.5 hectares and those with the largest area are 140 hectares. Of the total number of interviewees, 78% provide themselves with water for cattle in the pasture or corrals, coming from rivers and streams, other sources are springs with 12% and dams with 10%. It is considered that the characteristics described provide adequate conditions for livestock. A problem that afflicts livestock in the tropics in the presence of Ixodoida spp, in addition to other types of Mites, the options and alternatives to combat the tick in the PRODETER territory are through the bathroom, regularly it is done by using spray backpack, also the use of Pour on (loin) and tick-killing baths. The misuse of tick control products has generated resistance and problems for farmers (Piña et al., 2017). More than half of the farmers do not participate in animal health campaigns, only 36% do participate. The animal health campaigns in which farmers participate in PRODETER are bovine tuberculosis and paralytic rabies, 24% respectively, tick control 20% and finally brucellosis with 16%. Leos-Rodríguez, (2008) in the work of economic and productive characterization of bovine cattle producers that make up the list of PROGAN beneficiaries in Mexico, observed that the percentage of producers that participated in campaigns against ticks, tuberculosis and brucellosis is above 91%. What is superior to what was found in this diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications:</strong></p> <p>One of the main limitations was that the PRODETER Program was financed by the State for one year only and with that, in the first instance, it limited the intervention to see the effects and levels of adoption of the technological model in the Family Production Units</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong></p> <p>There is ignorance in the use of food supplements, so the development of calves, and the milk production and fertility of the cows, do not express the potential due to the lack of the necessary nutrients in the different productive stages. There is little use of the rangelands because the farmers ignore the practices to give maintenance, make divisions in the paddocks, so they do not rotate. Among the problems detected, the following stand out, among others: the lack of training, the lack of availability of technicians or experts to attend them, the cost of artificial insemination technology and the long periods between births, which causes calf production to decrease. Therefore, the lack of training in artificial insemination, stallion evaluation and crossbreeding systems for genetic improvement, limit the development of livestock with better quality standards in the region of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The diagnosis as such provides elements for the territorial development of livestock in the transoceanic corridor, since it offers areas of opportunity throughout the production process and can satisfactorily help livestock in that region</p> Mariano Morales-Guerra José de J. Maldonado-Méndez PEDRO CADENA IÑIGUEZ Rafael Ariza-Flores Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2625 Fire effect on the diversity of forest species in a medium superennifolia forest of Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Evaluate the effect of fire on natural regeneration and forest species diversity in a medium superennifolia forest in southeastern Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Natural regeneration was classified into three height categories (0 to 30 cm, 31 cm to 1 m and 1 to 3 m) and trees in three forest sites burned and unburnt by fire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 1193 individuals belonging to 69 species in 29 taxonomic families were recorded. Regeneration from 0 to 30 cm presented significant differences in species diversity in unburnt forest sites, while in regeneration from 1 to 3 m in burned forest sites.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>These types of studies are a first approximation to natural regeneration after a fire in tropical forests, so it is important to maintain permanent sites to monitor the recovery of ecosystems and thus be able to establish management strategies for the restoration of these ecosystems.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Regeneration after the fire was established with a low but constant number of species, indicating a tendency towards vegetation resilience. This information allows government institutions to make better decisions on the management and prevention of these ecosystems in Mexico.</p> José. G. Flores-Garnica Daniel A. Cadena-Zamudio Ana G. Flores-Rodríguez José. L Arispe-Vázquez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2815 Isolation and Characterization of fungal pathogens associated with Carica papaya L. and their biocontrol with Trichoderma sp. <p><strong>O</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In this work, we undertook the task of isolating and identifying Fusarium obtained from papaya fruits grown in the Veracruz region and carried out antibiotic tests to find a beneficial fungus that could exert biological control.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Juvenile fruits with necrosis and rot were collected from papaya plants of the Maradol variety, from here the pathogenic fungi were obtained, which were morphologically and molecularly characterized using the ITS gene. Subsequently, the isolated pathogenic fungi were confronted with the Trichoderma sp fungus.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ten isolates were obtained, of which four were Fusarium solani. From the confrontations, a 66% to 100% percentage of inhibition in these pathogenic fungi was obtained.</p> <p><strong>Limitations of the study: </strong>It is proposed that future evaluations carry out long-term follow-ups to evaluate the persistence and effectiveness of biological control.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> Timely identification of pathogens could represent a biological control strategy in disease management programs.</p> Lorena Jacqueline Gómez Godínez Jorge Gustavo Rodríguez Escobar Rebeca Rodríguez-Falconi Ramón I. Arteaga-Garibay Carlos H. Avendaño-Arrazate Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2802 Mycorrhizal status of Guarianthe skinneri (Orchidaceae) in urban trees in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To isolate and classify morphologically and molecularly mycorrhizal fungi associated with adult plants of <em>Guarianthe skinneri</em> (Bateman) Dressler &amp; W.E. Higgins (Orchidaceae), distributed in different phorophytes, exotic and native trees, in the City of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: We sampled roots from adult plants growing in two native phorophytes, <em>Byrsonima crassifolia </em>(L.) KUNTH and <em>Tabebuia rosea</em> (BERTOL.) BERTERO EX A. DC. and two exotic phorophytes, <em>Terminalia catappa</em> L. and <em>Ficus benjamina</em> L. located in the city's road. By the isolation of mycorrhizal strains, we had diagnosed them by morpho-physiological attributes, and molecularly (Sanger sequencing of the ITS1-4 region).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Forty-three fungal strains of two anamorphic mycorrhizal genus <em>Epulorhiza</em> and <em>Ceratorhiza</em> were obtained: 50% of the isolates came from plants growing in the exotic tree <em>T. catappa</em> with undigested pelotons and the highest molecular diversity (three contigs of the genus <em>Tulasnella</em>). <em>Ficus benjamina</em> had one molecular species shared with the native <em>B. crassifolia</em>. Roots growing in the native <em>T. rosea </em>tree, even though few isolates could be purified.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications</strong>: Even if the research was exploratory, it was possible to highlight the diverse mycorrhizal partners that urban phorophytes of <em>G. skinneri</em> harbor, showing their potential in the <em>ex situ</em> conservation of this species.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: The large number of the anamorph <em>Epulorhiza</em> isolates obtained from all phorophytes, reinforces previous observations suggesting that candelaria is preferentially associated with species of the Family Tulasnellaceae.</p> Jorge J. Ochoa-Bonilla María del Pilar Ortega-Larrocea Vincenzo Bertolini Gamaliel Mejía-González Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2816 Volatile organic compounds in the habitat of the escamolera ant (Liometopum apiculatum Mayr) in Zacatecas, Mexico <p>Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) take part in the biological processes of insects; however, these compounds have not been determined for genus<em> Liometopum</em>. The objective of this study was to identify the variability of the VOCs found in the <em>Liometopum apiculatum</em> habitat during the exploitation season. During the 2017 preseason and season, 35 air samples were collected from the nests of five <em>L. apiculatum</em> colonies established in crassicaule scrub vegetation; additionally, another 35 samples were taken from their foraging sites. Using a gas chromatograph with an electronic nose detector, the VOCs were identified with the Kovats index. In addition, a principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to evaluate the intensity variability per season. Fourty-eight VOCs were identified in the <em>L. apiculatum</em> habitat. The most significant VOCs included: saturated hydrocarbon (17%), aldehydes (17%), alcohols (15%), and esters (10%). PCA accounted for 79.5% (PC1=53.8 and PC2=25.7) of the intensity variability of the VOCs in the habitat between seasons. The <em>escamol</em> season was characterized by the 3-methyl-3-sulfonyl butan-1-ol, 2-Methylbutanoic acid, and trimethylamine. This profile of the VOCs in the <em>L. apiculatum</em> habitat is a pioneer work and has future implications for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the <em>escamolera</em> ant.</p> Ernestina Hernández-Roldán Luis Antonio Tarango-Arámbula Rogelio Flores-Ramírez José Pimentel-López Ricardo Serna-Lagunes Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 10.32854/agrop.v17i17.2817