Agro Productividad <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href=""><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href=""><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href=";user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href=";local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="">Biblat</a>, <a href="">CABI</a> y <a href="">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="">Catálogo</a>), <a href="">REDIB</a>, <a href="">SIBDI</a>, <a href="">MIAR</a>, <a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="">CORE</a>,<a href=""> Scilit</a>, <a href=";cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href=";referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href=";refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="">AURA</a>, <a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="">Refseek</a>,<a href=""> OpenAire</a>, <a href=";view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href=";rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="">scite.</a></p> Colegio de Postgraduados es-ES Agro Productividad 2448-7546 Global Trends in Blue Carbon Research in Mangroves <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the central themes and research trends on blue carbon in mangroves through a bibliometric analysis of the existing global scientific literature.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> A total of 1,128 scientific documents from the period 1986-2023 were analyzed, obtained from the Scopus database. The Bibliometrix package in R Studio and VOSviewer were used for processing.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results, encompassing 4,602 authors, 94 countries, 64 research areas, and 346 journals, indicated an exponential growth (R² = 0.99) in mangrove carbon research. The most productive author, country, research area, and journal were Lovelock, L. C., the United States of America, environmental sciences, and Science of The Total Environment, respectively. The studies focused on four thematic clusters: carbon storage, sedimentation, carbon dynamics, and climate change and anthropogenic impact. Topics related to blue carbon, carbon stores, climate change, restoration, and remote sensing are currently of significant interest to the scientific community.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> While Scopus covers a vast number of peer-reviewed journals, it may omit some relevant research on the topic. Although the main research themes were identified, more in-depth information on each of them is still needed.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Four globally relevant themes in blue carbon research in mangroves were identified, providing a roadmap for researchers to strategically direct efforts and funding in future scientific investigations.</p> ELISEO HERNANDEZ HERNANDEZ EDUARDO VALDÉS VELARDE SAUL UGALDE LEZAMA SERGIO R. MÁRQUEZ BERBER GIOVANNI ÁVILA FLORES Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2818 Effects of the combining ability of piquin pepper (Capsicum annuum var. Glabriusculum) from different geographical sites <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the effects of the general combining ability (GCA) and the specific combining ability (SCA) on the agronomic variables of piquin pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> var. <em>Glabriusculum</em>) genotypes.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 36 F1 and nine parental crosses were used as plant material. The genotypes were distributed in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Ten agronomic variables were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Differences (P≤ 0.01) were found in all the evaluated variables, both in the genotypes and in GCA and SCA. Additive gene action influenced heritability, where following variables stood out: days to harvest (DTH), chlorophyll (CHL), plant height (PH), average fruit weight (AFW), fruit equatorial diameter (FED), and fruit polar diameter (FPD). One the one hand, genotypes G6 and G7 recorded the highest positive yield values for GCA, with 143.96 and 66.97 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. On the other hand, 58% of the SCA crosses obtained favorable yield results. Meanwhile, the highest positive values were obtained by the G6xG7, G8xG9, G5xG9, G3xG4, G4xG8, and G1xG8 crosses, which recorded 427.1, 190.5, 167.4, 146.8, 129.7, and 125.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> According to the effects of GCA and SCA on the agronomic variables of piquin pepper, the genotypes G6 and G7 can be used to develop varieties, while the G6xG7, G8xG9, and G5xG9 crosses are recommended for hybrid formation within breeding programs.</p> Juan Samuel Guadalupe Jesús Alcala Rico Alfonso López Benítez Neymar Camposeco Montejo Odilon Gayosso Barragán Griselda Chávez Aguilar Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2624 Availability, accessibility, and intake of vegetables native to Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to analyze the intake of vegetables native to Mexico from 1980 to 2020, based on the food security approach.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: the availability and accessibility dimensions of food security were taken into consideration for this study; in addition, descriptive statistics and regression models were used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the apparent national intake of native vegetables increased during the study period, reaching 6.821 million tons in the year 2020, while the per capita intake was 148 grams in the same year. The actual income and the quarterly family expenses on vegetables, pulses, and seeds decreased from $1,890 Mexican pesos in 1980 to $1,082 Mexican pesos in 2020.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications</strong>: the food utilization and stability dimensions that encompass food safety were not included in the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: public food security policies must promote the production and intake of vegetables native to Mexico and increase the actual income of the most vulnerable Mexican families, facilitating accessibility to these products.</p> Carlos Sánchez Gómez Ignacio Caamal-Cauich Verna G. Pat-Fernández Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2634 Glyphosate contamination: implications for honeybee Apis mellifera and consumers in Southeastern Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>: in a study conducted from June 2021 to May 2022 in two apiaries in southeastern Mexico, levels of glyphosate residues in pollen collected by bee <em>Apis mellifera</em> were analyzed to assess potential risks to both bees and humans.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong><strong>: </strong>the analysis used an immunoassay method after residue extraction using the QUECHERS method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: the results revealed the presence of glyphosate in all samples, with concentrations ranging between 3.71 and 7.29 μg kg<sup>-1</sup>. However, risk analysis, as indicated by the pollen hazard quotient, suggested that these quantities did not pose a serious threat to bees or humans. The levels were within the limits of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the acute reference dose (ARfD) and the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL).</p> <p><strong>Limitations/implications</strong><strong>: </strong>although this study did not find any significant association between glyphosate and potential risks for both humans and bees, its persistence in the environment was demonstrated.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions</strong><strong>: </strong>Glyphosate levels at the study site were low, suggesting minimal risk to both humans and bees. However, the wide distribution of glyphosate in the region makes it necessary to emphasize long-term studies to understand the possible chronic effects of the pesticide on all species in the area.</p> Jovani Ruiz-Toledo Daniel Sánchez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2748 Infestation of Cattle with the Tick Amblyomma mixtum in the States with the Highest Cattle Inventory in Mexico <p><strong>A</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The <em>Amblyomma mixtum</em> tick is one of the main parasites affecting cattle in Mexico. Epidemiological records of <em>A. mixtum</em> in leading states in the national cattle industry, such as Jalisco, Chiapas, Michoacán, Tabasco, and Veracruz, are outdated since this tick species was previously classified as <em>A. cajennense</em>. The objective was to update the records of the <em>A. mixtum</em> tick in the states of Jalisco, Chiapas, Michoacán, Tabasco, and Veracruz, as well as the main ixodicide molecules used for its control.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> From March 2022 to July 2023, ticks were collected from cattle in 46 bovine production units (BPUs) distributed in the states mentioned above. Identification was performed using standardized taxonomic keys. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on specimens corresponding to <em>A. mixtum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of a total of 619 specimens of the genus <em>Amblyomma</em> from 22 PBUs, it was confirmed that 100% correspond to the species <em>A. mixtum</em>. Amitraz, an ixodicide molecule belonging to the chemical class of amidines, was used in 63.2% of the BPUs where the presence of <em>A. mixtum </em>was also reported.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This research confirms cattle infestation with <em>A. mixtum</em> in states with the highest cattle production in Mexico. Further studies with a focus on resistance and extension are required to prolong the usefulness of available tools, including ixodicides, for integrated control of <em>A. mixtum </em>infestations where this tick infests cattle in Mexico.</p> C. Cárdenas-Amaya Dora Romero Salas M. Aguilar-Domínguez A. Cruz-Romero M. A. Alonso-Díaz S. Sánchez-Montes M. González-Hernández G. Rosas-Saito A. A. Pérez de León Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2751 Productive and Ruminal Microbiological Behavior of Sheep Fed with Two Levels of Dehydrated Orange Residue <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the productive and ruminal microbiological behavior of sheep fed with two levels of dehydrated orange residue (DOR).</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Thirty Dorper x Katahdin crossbred male sheep with an average live weight of 22 ± 1.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and ten repetitions. The distribution of treatments was as follows: T1 = diet with 0% DOR (control), T2 = diet with 15% DOR, and T3 = diet with 30% DOR. The variables evaluated were daily weight gain, dry matter intake, feed conversion, ruminal pH, and microbiological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in the productive variables due to the inclusion of DOR in the diet. Similarly, the concentration of ruminal microorganisms did not present significant differences between treatments.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/implications:</strong> The study did not include an economic analysis that would demonstrate a reduction in production costs by decreasing the inclusion of maize in the diet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Maize grain is one of the most commonly used cereals as an energy source in sheep feeding; however, it can be replaced by DOR up to 30% without affecting the productive and ruminal microbiological variables in fattening sheep.</p> Marcos Pérez Sato Hermes Pérez Hernández Uriel García García Eutiquio Soni Guillermo Numa Pompilio Castro González Edgar Valencia Franco José Luis Ponce Covarrubias Blanca Berenice Flores Espinosa Luis Antonio Domínguez Perales Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2806 Physicochemical characterization of flour based on waste shrimp exoskeleton obtained by dehydration processes <p>O</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To characterize the physicochemical and nutritional compounds of meal made from shrimp (<em>Farfantepenaeus aztecus </em>L.) exoskeleton, obtained through hot air dehydration processes, in order to value new products and applications, according to their nutritional components.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Shrimp producers from Alvarado, Veracruz, were interviewed using a quantitative approach with a descriptive scope. Likewise, shrimp (<em>Farfantepenaeus aztecus </em>L.) shells were dehydrated and powdered to transform them into meal. The proximate chemical composition was analyzed to determine its nutritional composition and its macro and micronutrients, as well as to identify the deficiencies or excesses of certain nutrients. The general public and local ranchers were surveyed and interviewed to establish the opinions, preferences, and behaviors of consumers regarding meal by-products, in order to evaluate their market acceptance.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In Alvarado, Veracruz, 2.5 tons of shrimp shell are wasted. The meal obtained from these shells has a high protein (45.40%) and mineral content, which includes Ca (11.17%), Na (6.86%), Fe (237 mg/Kg<sup>-1</sup>), and Zn (77 mg/Kg<sup>-1</sup>). Therefore, this nutrient content guarantees the quality of the protein input that is acquired and the food that is provided.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> Access to outdated statistical information, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, hindered the collection of relevant data. Likewise, the lack of interest of the producers in monitoring the project and the limited participation and knowledge of the workers represented a significant challenge to the progress of the study.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The meal under study contained nutritional elements, making it a product with high nutritional quality that could add value to shrimp waste and that has potential applications in the food industry, in the production of fertilizers, and in the formulation of balanced feed for animals. Consequently, it would contribute to the reduction of pollution in the Alvarado lagoon system.</p> Gema del Carmen Jiménez Gómez Jorge Martínez-Herrera Leonardo Martínez-Lara Gilda Avendaño-Vásquez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2807 Microbiological quality of marketed fish and shrimp in San Luis Mextepec in the State of Mexico, Mexico. <p><strong>Objectivo:</strong> Análisis de productos comunes de la pesca y de amplia comercialización en zona popular de la población de San Luis Mextepec en el estado de México; afín de determinar el peligro y potencial de riesgo a la salud por consumo de estos productos.</p> <p><strong>Diseño/metodologia/enfoque:</strong> Se realizó la colecta de muestras de filete de pescado y camarón entero en pescaderías disponibles de la zona popular de comercialización de alimentos acuáticos en San Luis Mextepec en el estado de México cada semana durante un mes, evaluando su calidad microbiológica consistente en mesófilos aerobios, coliformes totales, Salmonella, hongos y levaduras.</p> <p><strong>Resultados:</strong> El análisis de mesofilos aerobios en pescado y camarón indicó que no sobrepasaron los limites permisibles de la norma oficial sanitaria, mientras que coliformes en pescado el 100% de las muestras y en camarón el 50% sobrepasaron el límite permisible. Para hongos en pescado y camarón presentaron recuentos que oscilaban entre 8 y 2150 CFU/g, mientras que para levaduras los valores oscilaron entre 95 y 1010 CFU/g. Finalmente en el análisis de Salmonella spp., el 50% de muestras de pescado y camarón dieron positiva a la presencia del patógeno infringiendo el límite sanitario e indicando un riesgo a la salud para consumidores.</p> <p><strong>Limitaciones/implicaciones:</strong> Este estudio debe replicarse en otras épocas del año ya que el tipo y grado de contaminación en pescados y camarones puede variar influyendo en los peligros microbiológicos y riesgo a la salud de consumidores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusiones</strong>: El análisis microbiológico de pescado y camarón comercializado indicó la presencia de contaminación microbiológica que influye en su calidad e inocuidad convirtiéndose en un peligro y riesgo a la salud de consumidores.</p> Aldo Santillán Pérez Víctor Donnet Posadas Corral Mayra Diaz Ramirez Andrea Y. Guadarrama Lezama J. Eleazar Aguilar Toalá Rigoberto V. Perez Ruiz Luis Daniel Espinosa Chaurand Alejandro De Jesus Cortes Sanchez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2808 HORSES AN IMPORTANT SPECIE IN CHARRERIA, ITS MANAGEMENT AND WELFARE <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Describe the management practices provided to charrería horses in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and relate them to animal welfare.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> Sixty-four owners of charrería horses were interviewed and 10% underwent an evaluation according to the protocol of the Welfare Quality ®</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The most used breeds are Creole, Quarter Horse, Aztec, Spanish and Arabian. The starting age in charrería is two to four years. Hoof shoeing is done every 8 to 12 weeks in 54.3%. The diet is based on forage and commercial feed (82.8%). Deworming is every six months (60.9%), vaccinated against tetanus, rabies, and influenza. The most frequent diseases are digestive and locomotor, skin and respiratory. The stereotypes were rocking, nodding, kicking doors, chewing wood, and walking in circles. Abundant body condition ranged from good to obese in the animals. The majority had white hairs as an indication of injuries caused by the harnesses.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications:</strong> The lack of knowledge of the owners of horses dedicated to charro sport, to relate the five freedoms of well-being that must be given to every animal to improve their sporting performance, has caused problems in the animal’s life quality.</p> <p> <strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The findings observed in the horses indicate that the welfare conditions were affected, which led to the development of vices, poor body condition, sick animals, and skin lesions in the animals.</p> Eduardo E. Robledo-Reyes Jaime Olivares Pérez M. Hernández-Gil S. Rojas-Hernández Miguel A. Damián-Valdez A. Villa-Mancera F. Quiroz-Cardoso Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2819 Phenotypic analysis of mezcal agaves from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Mezcal agaves in the state of Oaxaca have a high economic value due to the demand for mezcal production; therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess and highlight the importance of morphological diversity within and among cultivated <em>Agave</em> species.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>A completely randomized experimental design with 25 treatments (populations) and 11 replicates (individuals) was implemented. The plant (individual) was the experimental unit and 19 morphological descriptors proposed by the National Seed Inspection and Certification Service (SNICS) were assessed. A total of 275 individuals of the <em>Agave angustifolia</em>, <em>Agave karwinskii</em>, <em>Agave marmorata</em>, <em>Agave rhodacantha</em>, <em>Agave potatorum</em>, <em>Agave seemanniana</em>, and <em>Agave nussaviorum</em> species were assessed using a multivariate analysis to determine their phenotypic variability and existing relationships.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The dendrograms for the Q-mode and R-mode were obtained by means of a cluster analysis, forming 4 groups based on the average linkage generated from the standardized BDM of the sampled species of the genus <em>Agave</em>. Four groups were formed using the k-means clustering method, in accordance with field observations and a review of the taxonomic bibliography. The first two principal components (PC) accounted for 66.4% of the total variation, according to the principal component analysis (PCA). For PC1 and PC2, the variables with the highest contribution were those related to leaf shape (Fh), size of the lateral spine (FEL), number of leaves (Nh), plant height (H), uniformity in the size of the lateral spines (UTE), and terminal spine shape (FET).</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>A comprehensive study requires taxonomic keys to identify species, subspecies, and even varieties of <em>Agave</em>. Additionally, molecular characterization is essential to understand the variability and phylogenetic relationships of these populations, subject to a phylogenetic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>Multivariate analysis techniques revealed that three species showed high phenotypic variability in the maturation stage under cultivation conditions. The <em>A. potatorum</em> and <em>A. karwinskii</em> species had a greater intra-population phenotypic variability, with significant differences within the same species. <em>Agave marmorata</em> showed no intra- or inter-population variability. Leaf texture (Txh) was the only variable that explained the variation within its group. This is a tall species whose diameter is larger than in the other species. The variables of the Mexican (<em>Agave rhodacantha</em>) group showed low correlation, as their behavior was highly dispersed. The variables obtained in the field from this group of populations must be meticulously assessed to identify the degree of correlation between the variables and to confirm the behavior of this group.</p> JUAN PORFIRIO LEGARIA SOLANO María Patricia Vásquez-Maya Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2641 Marafalfa grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) and mucuna (Stizolobium pruriens L. Medik) silage in a semi-confined sheep system in southeastern Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to evaluate an alternative for feeding with silage to limit the decrease in productivity in dry seasons for sheep producers.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Ensilage was made with marafalfa grass (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> Schum) and endemic mucuna (<em>Stizolobium pruriens </em>(L.) Medik). The feeding method evaluated consisted of a semi-confined system, allowing the sheep to graze for a period of five hours per day, to later supplement it with the proposed silage. Studies of bromatological parameters were carried out with the three proposed silage treatments, and the weight of the sheep was measured at the beginning, during and at the end of fattening.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results suggest that the <em>P. purpureum</em> silo demonstrates significant weight gain, which is why it is proposed as an alternative for dry seasons.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on the study/implications: </strong>In the state of Campeche, sheep production is carried out under extensive direct grazing systems on grasslands, with scarce technology and low productivity. In the dry season, the productivity of these systems suffers a significant loss, due to limitations.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Ensilage without the addition of mucuna (S. <em>pruriens</em>) obtained better results in sheep growth and this may be due to palatability. It is suggested to include a drying process prior to adding the mucuna (S. <em>pruriens</em>)</p> Ricardo Antonio Chiquini Medina Roberto Amado Cárdenas López David Julián Palma Cancino Crescencio de la Cruz Castillo Aguilar Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2700 Methane in Dairy Farms in Aguascalientes: Corn Silage <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the potential methane gas production from corn silages (CS) intended for Holstein cattle in dairy farms in the state of Aguascalientes (Ags), Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) is one of the greenhouse gases, and worldwide plans and actions are being developed to monitor, control, and reduce their environmental impact. In Mexico, methane emissions from livestock are equivalent to 10.1% of CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent are recorded. CS samples were collected from six municipalities in Ags, representing a total of 18 dairy farms. The <em>in vitro</em> gas production technique was used to determine methane gas production, employing a nested mixed model to compare variables between municipalities using residual maximum likelihood method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average methane production in CS was 29.3 mL/gDM. The Ags municipality showed significantly higher methane production (35.9 mL/gDM, p&lt;0.05), while San Francisco de los Romo (SFR) displayed the lowest production (21.5 mL/gDM, p&lt;0.05). In the state of Aguascalientes, CS-derived CH<sub>4</sub> production was projected at approximately 2,884 metric tons (MT) annually.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> There were no identified limitations in the study.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The potential CH<sub>4</sub> gas production derived from CS projected in the study represented 0.103% of what was reported by INEGyCEI in 2019.</p> MÓNICA GONZÁLEZ REYES César E. Sotelo-Reséndez Gustavo Tirado-Estrada Carlos R. Cruz-Vázquez Irene V. Vitela-Mendoza Isaac Andrade-González Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2713 Profitability analysis of the use of a variable dosing system for the differentiated application of fertilizer in corn crops <p><strong>Objective:</strong> a profitability comparison was made between corn production with the use of a variable doser and a conventional fertilizer doser. The variable doser for the differentiated application of fertilizer was built at CENEMA of INIFAP.</p> <p>An experimental plot was established, applying the recommendations established in the technological package for grain corn production, by INIFAP, in the State of Mexico.With the variable doser, it was verified that the fertilizer needs of the soil required 11.5 % less than that supplied by a constant application doser. The yield obtained was 5.6 % higher than in the conventional one. The B/C benefit/cost ratio of corn production with the variable doser was 1.60, while with the conventional doser it was 1.44, for both cases the profitability is positive, with a difference of $0.16 cents.</p> <p>The profitability with the use of the variable doser was higher than with the conventional doser.</p> Alma Velia Ayala Garay Marco A. Audelo-Benítez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2787 Clonal micropropagation and ex-situ conservation of Rhyncholaelia digbyana (Lindley) Schltr <p class="elementtoproof" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">Objective: </span></strong><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">To obtain protocols for clonal micropropagation, crop planning, and <em>in vitro</em> conservation of <em>Rhycholaelia digbyana</em> (Lindley) Schltr. </span></p> <p class="elementtoproof" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">Methodology:</span></strong> <span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">The effects of the Kundson C basal medium and benzylaminopurine concentration were evaluated for clonal micropropagation. The treatment with the greatest number of shoots formed per apex was selected for crop planning. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of basal medium Murashige and Skoog concentration at 2.2 gL<sup>-1</sup> and 4.4 gL<sup>-1</sup>; sorbitol, mannitol, and sucrose at 1, 2, and 3% on slow growth. </span></p> <p class="elementtoproof" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;"><strong>Results: </strong>The best treatment for clonal micropropagation and crop planning was identified as 21.60 gL<sup>-1 </sup>Knudson C with 8.80 µM benzylaminopurine. This treatment resulted in uniform-sized shoots produced. The multiplication process can yield 10,240 seedlings in 12 months. Slow growth was achieved using Murashige and Skoog basal media at 2.2 gL<sup>-1 </sup>with 1% mannitol. </span></p> <p class="elementtoproof" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;"><strong>Implications: </strong>More experiments must be conducted to determine the best shoot induction conditions and improve resource efficiency.</span></p> <p class="elementtoproof" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;"> <strong>Conclusions:</strong></span> <span style="font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">These findings represent the first report on micropropagation and ex-situ conservation to preserve germplasm for this species as an important resource for the floriculture industry.</span></p> R. Chi-Ramírez Maura Gilbert J. Herrera-Cool A. Sánchez-Contreras Guadalupe Lopez Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2832 Economic and Productive Impact of the Implementation and Use of Agricultural Irrigation in the State of Tabasco, Mexico <p><strong>O</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Three support programs for agricultural irrigation in 8 municipalities in the State of Tabasco were evaluated for a total area of 972.4 ha with 7 crops per municipality. One production cycle was used for the evaluation of the irrigation units in the State of Tabasco.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The software "System for the Evaluation of Irrigation Units" SISEVUR 3.0 was used for the integration and evaluation of a) general operation of infrastructure; b) producer satisfaction with the infrastructure; c) aspects of improvement in the quantity and quality of production; d) benefits of irrigation on agricultural production and suggestions and opinions of producers regarding hydro-agricultural programs e). The economic/financial evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The crops that responded best to the application of irrigation were: 1) forage corn, with an increase in production of 140.7%; 2) lemon with 97.98%; 3. banana with 58.6%, and 4 sugar cane with 41%.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>Data collection required several visits to the producer to improve the collection of reliable data. However, there is a margin of error that could not be quantified due to the particularities of the producers and the work.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>Bananas and citrus improved production quality and product maintenance throughout the year, favoring supply and demand commitments in the domestic and international markets.</p> José H. Rodolfo Mendoza-Hernández Luis Vargas-Villamil Francisco Izquierdo-Reyes Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2850 Morphological identification and characterization of the formation of floral primordium in Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To morphologically identify and characterize the formation of floral primordium and the individual flower development in <em>Vanilla planifolia</em> Jacks Ex. Andrews.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Inflorescence primordia and young inflorescences in different development stages were sampled from the stem internodes of the following positions: basal (11-15), middle (6-10), and distal (1-5). Four samples were taken from each stem position from February to May, with five repetitions per sampling date. Observations and characterization were made with a stereo microscope. The study site was located at Rancho Xanathtlan, in Barriles, municipality of Gutiérrez Zamora, Veracruz.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The development of the <em>V. planifolia</em> raceme is described in seven phases: (I) differentiated meristem of the floral inflorescence; (II) appearance of the third bract; (III) initiation of the racemes formation; (IV) elongation of the floral primordium; (V) development and growth of the individual floral primordium in the acropetal direction, (VI) anthesis of the inflorescence in the acropetal direction; and (VII) complete flowering of the raceme. The development of the buds in the raceme is described in five stages from the appearance of the third bract in the acropetal direction.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The biochemical processes and the interaction of environmental aspects on the floral development of <em>V. planifolia</em> pose questions that remain unanswered.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The first aspects of floral formation within the inflorescence of <em>Vanilla planifolia</em> were determined, along with its floral phenology.</p> Martin Pérez-Posadas Hilda A. Zavaleta-Mancera Adriana Delgado-Alvarado Víctor M. Salazar-Rojas Braulio Edgar Herrera Cabrera Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2859 Update on the terrestrial orchid flora of the Tacana volcano and close area, Chiapas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the number of terrestrial orchid species on the Tacaná volcano, Chiapas, and to empirically observe distribution/elevation patterns and ecological conditions.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: Random line transect sampling, over two years, for a total of 8 sites, each starting from the vicinity of rural villages. Samples were deposited in the CICY herbarium and analysed using dichotomous keys and field photographs. New records were compared with the GBIF data distribution.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 52 different taxa have been identified. 24 species are new records for the Soconusco region, where the Tacaná volcano is located. In this way, the Soconusco region becomes the richest Mexican region for the number of orchid species, joining a total of 351 species.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications</strong>: Building an accurate prediction model based on environmental and topographic variables could suggest microsites within the Tacaná Park that we have not visited for practical and technical reasons.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: The total number of taxa in the Soconusco region increases to 351. Terrestrial orchids are not usually studied in depth in tropical places, but they are also important in the ecological balance of the natural site. A specific inventory could show more richness of tropical ecosystems</p> Vincenzo Bertolini William Cetzal-Ix Edgar Mó Ivan Tamayo-Cen Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2897 Productive Characteristics, Nesting Substrates, and Colonies of the Escamolera Ant (Liometopum apiculatum M.) in Zacatecas, Mexico <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to connect measurements, weights, and production of <em>escamoles</em> with nesting substrates, foraging paths, nest types, and colony sizes of the <em>escamolera</em> ant.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The data about nests, colonies, and larvae were gathered during morning and evening field walks, with the support of <em>escamoles</em> harvesters. The basic statistics of the data were estimated (N = 59 nests/colonies) and analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis H test. In addition, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the differences per nest type.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The highest production of <em>escamoles</em> was recorded in the <em>Prosopis laevigata</em> substrate (x=551.08 g/N=1), while the lowest production was recorded in the <em>Echinocereus stramineus</em> substrate (x=228.31 g/N=4). The length and width of the larvae (N=1,100 larvae) were similar in all the substrates. The weight of the larvae varied from 0.09 g, in the <em>Prosopis levigata</em> substrate, to 0.16 g, in the dry palm (<em>Yucca</em> spp.) substrate; therefore, 11,111 and 6,250 larvae are required, respectively, to obtain 1 kg of <em>escamoles</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The information of this study is limited to a single harvesting region.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The low <em>escamoles</em> production indicates that its harvesting must comply with a regulatory framework and a better organization, in order to guarantee the continuous presence of <em>Liometopum apiculatum </em>colonies.</p> Humberto Romero-Jiménez Luis A. Tarango-Arámbula Ernesto Peredo-Rivera J. Del Rosario-Arellano Genaro Olmos-Oropeza E. Hernández-Roldán Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2933 CO2 emissions from solid biofuel consumption in rural communities in Durango, Mexico <p><strong>Objective:</strong> the objective of this study was to calculate the amount, in kilotons per year (kt a<sup>-1</sup>), of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from firewood consumption in rural communities of Durango in managed areas (UMAFOR– Forest Management Units) and at the municipality scale.</p> <p><strong>Design/ Methodology/ Approach: </strong>the firewood consumption was determined for each of the UMAFOR areas and the 39 municipalities into which the state of Durango is divided. Greenhouse Inventory Software<sup>®</sup> was used to determine CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the annual CO<sub>2</sub> balance due to firewood consumption in Durango was 268.05 kt of CO<sub>2</sub>. These emissions in relation to the national scale represent 1.52% per year. Those UMAFOR and the municipalities that are geographically located in the semi-arid zone of the state of Durango were those with the higher CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.</p> <p><strong>Findings/ Conclusions:</strong> it is necessary to couple the consumption of firewood with eco-technologies that favor its efficient consumption, thus mitigating CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.</p> Luis Valenzuela Edwin A. Briceño-Contreras Cristina García-De La Peña Aldo R. Martínez-Sifuentes José A. Hernández-Herrera Cayetano Navarrete-Molina Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 10.32854/agrop.v17i6.2596